Monday, August 24, 2020
Ladies in the California State Penitentiary System In the mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s obligatory condemning laws produced results, subsequently quickly expanding the female populace in California jails. The imprisonment rate for ladies despite everything fails to measure up to the male jail populace, yet the rates for ladies are consistently expanding. As indicated by the Criminal Justice Consortium of the California Department of Corrections, in 1996 77.6 percent of ladies in California Prisons were imprisoned for peaceful offenses. Most wrongdoings are medicate related or property related misdemeanors, for example, check fraud and unlawful charge card use. Of those accused of rough violations, most of ladies were either safeguarding themselves or their youngsters. In California there are more than 600 ladies detained for slaughtering in self-preservation. The normal sentence for executing a spouse is twice as long than for murdering a wife. Broadly, ladies detainees are typically minorities, with African-American creation up 46 percent of the female jail populace, while they just make up 13 percent of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s females. Hispanic females make up around 14 percent and Caucasian ladies around 36 percent of females imprisoned across the country. Bigotry is additionally significant in the legal framework with regards to condemning ladies. African-American ladies are twice as liable to be sentenced for murdering their significant other than a Caucasian lady. African American ladies are additionally bound to get stiffer fines and more prison time at that point white ladies. Female detainees are bound to be poor. Actually the greater part (53 percent) of ladies entering jail were jobless at the hour of their capture. Ladies go through around 17 hours every day in their cell and are permitted one hour of activity time though guys go through about 15 hours per day in their cells and are permitted one and a half hors of activity every day. California works four huge womenÃ¢â¬â¢s offices. The California Institution for ladies in Frontera opened in 1952 and ... Free Essays on Women In Prison Free Essays on Women In Prison Ladies in the California State Penitentiary System In the mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s required condemning laws produced results, hence quickly expanding the female populace in California jails. The detainment rate for ladies despite everything fails to measure up to the male jail populace, however the rates for ladies are consistently expanding. As indicated by the Criminal Justice Consortium of the California Department of Corrections, in 1996 77.6 percent of ladies in California Prisons were imprisoned for peaceful offenses. Most violations are tranquilize related or property related misdemeanors, for example, check fabrication and illicit Visa use. Of those accused of savage violations, most of ladies were either shielding themselves or their kids. In California there are more than 600 ladies imprisoned for murdering in self-preservation. The normal sentence for murdering a spouse is twice as long than for executing a wife. Broadly, ladies detainees are generally minorities, with African-American creation up 46 percent of the female jail populace, while they just make up 13 percent of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s females. Hispanic females make up around 14 percent and Caucasian ladies around 36 percent of females detained across the country. Prejudice is likewise significant in the legal framework with regards to condemning ladies. African-American ladies are twice as prone to be sentenced for murdering their better half than a Caucasian lady. African American ladies are additionally bound to get stiffer fines and more prison time at that point white ladies. Female detainees are bound to be poor. Actually the greater part (53 percent) of ladies entering jail were jobless at the hour of their capture. Ladies go through around 17 hours per day in their cell and are permitted one hour of activity time while guys go through about 15 hours every day in their cells and are permitted one and a half hors of activity every day. California works four enormous womenÃ¢â¬â¢s offices. The California Institution for ladies in Frontera opened in 1952 and ...
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The Triple coalition and The Triple Entrente The Triple EntenteThe Triple Entente was a coalition shaped in 1907 by France, Britain and Russia before the first universal war. It was begun by the French since they felt undermined by Germany and the triple coalition (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy)Britain joined in light of the fact that they were stressed over the German Navy. At long last Russia joined on the grounds that they were stressed over assaults from Germany and Austria-Hungary who both had developing armed forces. Russia additionally guaranteed Serbia help on the off chance that they were attacked.The Triple allianceThe Triple Alliance was shaped in 1879. From the start it simply included Germany and Austria-Hungary since they would bolster one another on the off chance that they were assaulted by either Russia or France. Later in 1882 Italy was incorporated to frame The Triple Alliance.[Insert tables from wikipedia here]As you can see the Triple Entente have the benefit of an enormous naval force and ought to hav e the option to control the waters, they can win ocean fights and transport troops over the sea.IWM inscription : Channel Layout and Conditions: A fat...
Saturday, July 18, 2020
Sales Funnel Tips and Tricks that Double Your ROI Sales is the activity of selling goods and services to customers in exchange of money. Every organization lives and breathes on this integral component and it forms the backbone of their business. Whether it be the retail industry or the online/internet industry, every firm in any industry is always keeping an eye on their sales conversion rates.They always want to know how their revenues fair in comparison to their investment in marketing and advertising. Successful businesses monitor how much they spend, how they brand their products, and how much they earn, whereas unsuccessful organizations do not analyze all of this information.Companies are looking for ways of attracting more prospective customers into buying their goods. A marketing model that is commonly employed by companies to deal with this issue is the Sales Funnel, also known as the Purchase Funnel or Marketing Funnel.A sales funnel is a marketing model that depicts the journey consumers go through, from being unaware of your brand to actually purchasing your product. It is a very essential model that determines how successful your conversion rates are. Being able to convert more leads into actual customers is essential in boosting your sales and making your business more profitable.A sales funnel is a visual representation of the steps required to sell your product or service. As its name suggests, it resembles a funnel, with a wide and large pool of leads at the very top and a narrow and smaller group of customers buying your product. © Shutterstock.com | Red DeerIn this article, we will describe the sales funnel and how you can make use of it to boost your sales conversion rates. We will provide you some tips and tricks to double your return on investment (ROI) successfully attracting more customers and getting them to buy your products and services.WHAT IS A SALES FUNNEL?Over 100 years ago, Elias St. Elmo Lewis created a model that demonstrated the transition from consumers being attracted by a brand to consumers actually purchasing products from that same brand.This model is called the sales funnel and it was based on the AIDA model, AIDA being an acronym of Awareness, Interest, Decision, and Action.While this is a well established and trusted model, it is an outdated historical model and does not necessarily adhere to modern concepts. So many things have changed when it comes to business practices and customer interactions and expectations. Every sales process can be segmented based on a Sales Funnel that sui ts any particular business.You will need to analyze and assess your own organization to completely understand the steps customers need to take in order to eventually purchase your product. Letâs have a look at each of the most important parts of the sales funnel.Awareness â" The first and most important step in the sales funnel is to make potential consumers aware of your brand and product. There are various ways of going about this and fortunately, in the 21st century businesses are not limited to traditional marketing. They can use online/digital marketing tactics, too. Besides placing advertising in newspapers and magazines and using TV commercials, companies now also use social media marketing (SMM), search engine advertising (SEA), and email marketing. There are plenty of avenues to explore when building awareness in potential consumers. Depending on the product or service you are promoting, you will need to select which route to go. Pursuing all of them simultaneously may n ot be the wisest choice and could lead to high expenses. Know your product and target audience, and place ads accordingly.Interest â" After your customers have become aware of your product, they need more convincing to get them into buying your product. They are only aware of your product, but are still not convinced that it is the best thing on the market and that they need it. After telling them what it is, you need to tell them why they need it. This is where quality content plays a crucial role. Very good advertisement consists of high quality content that hooks customers into buying something. Your job as a company is to educate your leads in order to convert them into prospective buyers. You must create desire within your target demographic.Evaluation â" Before arriving at a final decision, all customers will scope out the playing field and have a look at your competitorsâ offers. Since consumers are about to spend money on a product, they need time to assess their option s. They will weigh their options, compare and contrast, and then arrive at a decision. Having reviews of your product available to read online will significantly turn the tides in your favor, especially video reviews. Testimonials are a proven method of reeling in your customers, since people trust others who have reviewed the product.Decision â" In this stage of the sales funnel, prospects are almost ready to make their decision to purchase your product and are prepared to become your customers. Usually this stage of the sales process gets prolonged because of hesitancy and uncertainty on the part of customers. In some situations, you as the salesperson of your business can slightly improve the offer without being too overbearing on your customers. Sometimes, these last minute activities make the difference between a sealed deal and a broken one.Action â" This is the final stage of the sales funnel, where your customers have made their purchase and you will deliver your product to your customers. When the entire sell is successful, you will receive your payment. Many falsely assume that it ends here, when that is actually far from the truth. Businesses should strive to have loyal customers. Following up on their queries and complaints shows them that you are genuinely concerned with their satisfaction. When you are able to satisfy customers, then they will spread the word of your brand, creating a positive brand image on your behalf. Loyal consumers tend to be repeat consumers, so you have successfully generated a customer base.These are the most common stages of any sales funnel in almost all industries. Depending on your specific industry, you may need to include extra stages due to the nature of your business.We will not go into specific detail on those other stages, as they vary greatly from company to company. When you are able to identify which business model works perfectly for you, then you are able to convert more leads into prospects and eventua lly customers.Look at how the sales pipeline works. TIPS AND TRICKS TO DOUBLE YOUR ROIWhen constructing a sales funnel that suits your business model, you must always keep in mind how effective it is. This can be determined by your return on investment (ROI). The ROI defines the effectiveness of investment, comparing profits to the capital investment. A high ROI means that favorable gains were earned from an investment, whereas a low ROI implies that a loss was incurred on investments. All businesses strive to achieve very high ROI, spending as little money as investment and reaping a large profit from it.That is easier said than done, but there are ways to accomplish that. Letâs look at the sales funnel in a manner that considers the consumers, the main target of any business, before moving on to how that relates to improving the ROI.Alternative View on the Sales FunnelYour sales funnel has a top, middle, and bottom section. The top section is where you have leads who need to be made aware of your product and brand. Leads typically have no idea of your product but with the help of advertising, they become familiar with your product. The middle section is the biggest chunk and it is concerned with sparking interest in these leads to make them prospects, consumers who are genuinely interested in purchasing your product. This is w here your company needs to take appropriate measures in convincing potential customers into buying your products. The last portion of the funnel is the narrow bit where actual customers have purchased your goods.Based on this, the very top of the funnel consists of leads and you have to cast a very wide net to catch as many leads as possible to widen your sales funnel. A percentage of these leads will become your prospects, people who are interested in your product and are qualified to make a purchase.When you look at it statistically, the more leads you are able to bring into your funnel, the more prospects you could potentially have. When you have more prospects, then you can convert them to more customers. And this is the bottom line of your business â" the customers, the ones who are buying your product. In order to improve your ROI, you need to improve your conversion rates down the funnel.Understanding Conversion RatesFar too many make the mistake of falsely associating more customers to a higher ROI, but that is not necessarily true.Imagine a situation where your website attracts 1000 visitors per month. Those 1000 visitors are your leads, just dropping by the site but not doing much beyond that. If your website has a landing page and registration form, perhaps 100 people completed it. This means that 10% of your leads has now become your prospects, because they are genuinely interested. From those 100 leads, maybe 10 people have actually bought something from your site. This means that 10% of prospects are actual customers. When taking a top-down approach to the entire thing, 100 leads turned into 10 customers, resulting in an overall conversion rate of 1%.Many may decide to spend more money on ad campaigns and generate more leads. For instance, if you happen to double your number of leads, prospects, and customers, then you will have 20 customers instead of 10. While that is definitely an improvement, your conversion rate remains at 1%. To acquire mo re customers, you had to invest more money and although you have more customers, thereby increasing your sales, you still have the same conversion rate. ROI is linked with conversion rates and as long as there is no improvement in the conversion rate, then your ROI will not improve.There are techniques and methods to improve your ROI by investing less money on attracting a large number of leads and investing more money on converting these leads to prospects and eventually customers. Letâs see how we can do that efficiently with some tips and tricks.Learn more on conversion rate optimization in the following video. Spend Less Money on Traditional MarketingBefore the age of the internet, products and services were marketed traditionally. Advertisements were placed in newspapers and magazines, banners and billboards were posted around cities, and TV commercials were created.Ad campaigns in the past were quite expensive and it came with a huge risk, because it was very difficult to gu arantee that those efforts would results in a large number of conversions. With the advent of the internet came new marketing tactics, too, to acquire leads online.Digital marketing, or online marketing, is a set of tools to advertise or market products and services online. Search engine optimization (SEO), search engine advertising (SEA), social media marketing (SMM), and email marketing are modern methods of promoting your brand at a very low cost.Unlike traditional marketing schemes, these online methods are relatively cheap and have been proven to draw a large number of customers. Many people now use the internet 24/7, so if you can reach out to everyone around the world through this one medium, then you have cast a wide net with very little effort on your part.As you shift your efforts from and dedicate more time on digital marketing, you are effectively spending less money on customer acquisition. Being able to generate more leads while not spending money is every companyâs dream, and you can make that possible. Creating awareness, however, is only the first step. Now you have to find ingenious ways to get people to retain their interest and desire in your product and brand.Always Keep Customers InterestedThe top of the funnel is important, but nowhere near as important as the middle of the funnel, where you job as a company is to entice leads into becoming prospects by feeding them more information and appeasing them. Here are some methods of keeping your prospects hooked on your product.Content Reigns SupremeGoogle has become a ubiquitous part of our lives. We cannot live without the worldâs most popular search engine. Whenever we want to have questions answered or want to find out some information, we search for it on Google. It has even become a verb in our vernacular!Good quality content optimized for search engines like Google will always appear at the top of the search list, and that is what you should strive for. This is where search engine o ptimization (SEO) plays a vital role in assuring that your website frequently appears high on the search list. Using language that your audience easily understands and is relevant to your product will hook your prospects.Know your target audience and understand your products and services extremely well so that you can create content around it and cater to your demographic. Provide as much relevant information as you can on your website, because the last thing you want is for your prospects to look elsewhere for more information and then they happen to stumble upon a competitorâs product.Odds are that your competitor has something on their site that is stealing your prospects. You need to ensure that your prospects stay on your site. An effective and very successful method of keeping them interested is to create a landing page that directs them close to your products.Click Through Landing PagesOne of the most popular types of landing pages is called a click through landing page. Th e goal of this landing page is to convince a website visitor into clicking through to go to another page. In most cases, it describes a particular sweet deal or special offer on an existing product that entices a visitor into buying it.All successful ecommerce websites use this particular type of landing page, since people are looking to buy something when they come to your site and a special offer will only appeal to them. A landing page displays enough information that gets your lead closer to becoming a prospect and eventually a customer.Click through pages result in an improved conversion rate because you are creating interest within your prospect. You are guiding them to the part of your website where they can actually make a purchase on a product you are promoting.You might think that eliminating choices from a landing page (since it is not as detailed as a website) is a bad thing but in fact, the manner in which you write your landing page will make it more persuasive instead of forced.Lead Capture Landing PagesAnother type of popular landing page is called a lead capture landing page. These landing pages are used to capture user data, like their name and email address. The goal was to collect email addresses of visitors and use email marketing to continually advertise products to these users.After filling out a form and giving specific information, a company can personally advertise to specific visitors to remind them of special offers and deals and keep people interested.Apart from promoting products and services to your prospects via email, other purposes of lead capture landing page include promoting ebooks, webinars, coupons, contests, and notifications of future products. Lead capture pages ensure that your leads do not lose interest. Email marketing is a very powerful tool of digital marketing and you should definitely take advantage of it by using lead capture landing pages.A combination of the two types of landing pages in addition to optimized content for your customers will result in an improved conversion rate, since you piqued the interest of your leads. There is now a higher probability that they will decide to buy your product.[slideshare id=45196536doc=kissmetricsleadgenlps-oligardner-150226160051-conversion-gate01w=710h=400]Advertise and Market on Social Media NetworksWhen people think of social networks, many immediately think of Facebook, the platform made for interacting with friends and connecting with new ones.However, Facebook is also a powerful platform for businesses to display their corporate information and frequently make posts about their products. In addition to having a Facebook page, we suggest every company to have accounts in Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, Instagram, and Snapchat.Here are some tips on using some social media platforms to reach out to more leads and get their interest in your goods.Your Facebook page needs to frequently post about special deals and offers your company is making. Every body who follows the page will be informed of these deals and this will entice them into buying your products. Constantly notifying your Facebook page followers will keep them interested and you have a higher chance to boost conversions. Facebook is the most popular social network for advertising products for corporations all over the globe.Twitter is another popular social platform that companies use to broadcast their deals. Using hashtags will boost the popularity of your posts and draw more customers into seeing your posts.Another platform that frequently uses hashtags is Instagram. Being just as big as Facebook and Twitter, Instagram is a great platform for advertising your product. Put appropriate hashtags to get more people to look at your product.Lastly, we would urge everybody to use Google+ and post deals and offers on your products. Although it may not be as popular as the other aforementioned platforms, its popularity is on the rise, with many users adopting this network . Be one of the first companies to take advantage of this empty playing field and start advertising and posting offers on Google+.Having all of these accounts up and running at all times will ensure that you always remind people of your products. In the 21st century, there are too many things going on at any given instance, so constantly reminding people of what you offer will grab their attention. This is a proven method of boosting conversion rates and increasing your ROI.Moreover, it would be wise to place ads on these platforms. Having accounts and pages in these networks is great for posting content on a regular basis.However, also having paid advertising on these platforms will ignite interest in those who do not necessarily follow your company. This may fall under the awareness aspect of the sales funnel, but it can also be categorized in the interest part, too.Sometimes posts about your company may not appear in the feed on the homepage of these social networks, so you need advertising as a backup plan to pop up.Customers Come FirstEven if your customers are aware of who you are and what you are selling after seeing a ton of ads online, they still do not know if they can trust you. This is actually the most important question customers ask themselves before deciding to buy something â" âCan I trust this company?âTypical questions that you should ask yourself as a business are, âAm I reliable? Do I offer quality products at a good price? Is there a warranty or guarantee on my products? What sets me apart from my competitors?âIf you cannot answer these questions positively with any sort of justification, then you need to start working on that right now. That is how you can improve conversion rates, thereby increasing your ROI.Emphasize Key Points to CustomersEarlier in this article, we talked about email marketing and how it is a very important tool in convincing people to buy product from you. You need to email all prospects who gave you their contact information via lead capture landing pages and reassure them that they can indeed trust you.You need to send periodical emails to all prospects, stating that your products are unlike anything else on the market and that you are offering them at the most competitive price. Even though the world economy is improving, it is still struggling to get back completely on its feet, so people are still very price conscious.Highlighting that your prices are very low by offering sales and discounts will tell you customers that you are providing economic incentives. This is a necessary ingredient in acquiring customers, by setting the best prices. This is an effective method of converting more leads.In addition to price, people are very concerned about the quality of service they will receive. Customers need to receive good support; otherwise, they will not be inclined in buying your products. Your ads need to clearly state that you offer warranties on your goods. In case of any defectiv e or broken goods, customers should be able to return their goods and receive a brand new one. This reassures them that they are making a smart investment and that the company (i.e. you) cares about them. This is another very effective method of converting leads.Make sure to have a customer support team set up at your organization to answer queries from customers, helping customers solve the problems they may face using your product. A 24/7 tech support team will be able to answer all calls and emails promptly to deliver excellent customer support. Make sure to emphasize this piece of information in your ads and emails.When customers see that your company is ready to answer all of their questions and help them at any time of the day or night, this gives them a strong reason to buy products from you. The keyword here is promptly â" not the day after or several hours later. You should answer everything within an hour! Studies have shown that companies with amazing customer support ar e the ones with the highest customer conversion rate and experience the best ROI.When you take all of these steps to provide excellent customer satisfaction with a 24/7 tech support team, warranties on all products, and the best prices on the market, then you have a very high chance of converting more prospects into customers. Providing all of these perks and services will only sweeten the deal for them and they have no choice but to take it. Think of these added bonuses as bait and they will get you more customers, you can count on that. More conversions, more ROI.Here is why great customer service is so important for improving your ROI. Retain CustomersA big mistake that some organizations make is that after customers buy their products from them, they think that the deal has been sealed and there is nothing left to do. That could not be any further from the truth.Your job as a company is to secure more leads, convert more leads into prospects and in turn customers, and hold on to the customers you do have. The last step is just as important, maybe even more important, than the first two. You need to keep these customers for the long run because they trust you and you need to value their trust in you.The moment you fail to live up to their expectations, they will abandon you and you just lost a customer. Retaining customers is a key component of boosting your ROI and there are some proven methods in ensuring that.Deliver on Quality and ServiceThe reasons for customers returning to you to purchase new products is that they liked the first product they originally purchased and they liked the customer service they received afterward. When you take the effort of being with your customers even after a purchase, then your customers will be in there for the long haul. Your brand image plays a vital role holding on to customers, so do everything you can to create a positive and friendly brand image that customers believe in.For instance, company A manufacturers comp uters. They happen to be very good in terms of specifications. However, whenever there is a problem, the tech support is nowhere to be found. People will most likely not buy computers from them. A competing firm, company B, also manufactures computers that are inferior and poor in terms of hardware. However, they have a round-the-clock customer service team ready to help all customers at any time. Still, customers are likely not to buy computers from them. Now consider company C, a manufacturer that produces high quality computers and has a support team that helps customers promptly. Customers will instantly gravitate toward company C because they deliver what customers want â" quality and service. That is how you retain customers and keep them coming back to buy more goods from you.When customers are happy, they will always come back for more. In addition, they will market your brand and products for you. Word of mouth is an underappreciated yet powerful marketing tool in the indu stry. Whenever you satisfy any customer, studies show that they will inform their friends and convince them to buy products from you. Consequently, you have successfully raised your ROI, all because you made customers happy in the first place.CONCLUSIONWhenever you are trying to sell your product or service to consumers, you must first analyze your own business model and design a sales funnel depicting how your customers go from being aware of your product to actually buying it. Do not fall in the trap of only attracting a large number of leads to boost the number of actual paying customers. While absolute numbers are important, they do not paint the whole picture; you need comparison data, too. In this case, the conversion rates and the ROI are a better indication of your marketing success and effectiveness.Following the steps that were mentioned in this article will significantly boost your ROI, doubling it or perhaps even tripling it if done correctly. By converting more leads in to prospects and in turn customers, you are gaining more from your initial capital investment. Always fine-tune your tactics to improve conversion rates.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sarbashree Rayamajhi EN_101-A Professor Jay Petrillo 05/05/2017 Women in aviation Ã¢â¬Å"Flying was a tangible freedom, In those days, it was beauty, adventure, discovery-the epitome of breaking into new words.Ã¢â¬ says Anna Marrow Lindberg, an American aviator, author and first woman to fly glider plane. Aviation industry has grown rapidly worldwide. The air traffic grows at the rate of 3-5% per year. This dramatical growth means a considerable growth of aviators.Womens have always been a part of aviation since earliest days yet they are in less number. From E.Lillian Todd, who designed aircraft in 1906 to Kate McWilliams, youngest pilot for the commercial airline, women have always contributed in aviation. Even though worldÃ¢â¬â¢s gender split isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They were trained to fly the Ã¢â¬Å"military-wayÃ¢â¬ , they were trained to fly B-29 Superfortress, which was considered to be one of the most heavy and dangerous flights. Their job included high level of danger.The WASP flew aircraft to destinations across the country. They piloted to low-target in training missions.They flew cargo and top secret weapons, and were test pilots. Even in military, discrimination against WASP existed at every level of their service. Women were paid only two-third than male pilots even though they performed exactly the same duty. In one instance, the military replaced two female pilots with an all-male crew just fifteen minutes before they were to pilot a plane across the Atlantic. People believed that women were emotionally and physically sensitive and questioned their capability to handle their responsibility in war. Some commanders even believed that women did not have the stamina to handle the strain of towing targets for gunnery practice. At times, women pilots were grounded by male commanders during their menstrual cycle every month because of the widespread stereotype that they were less efficient during their menstrual cycle. However, the WASP put this inaccurate and narrow thinking to an end by proving with their flying records that they were better pilots even on the first day of their cycles. Despite the discrimination, young women from all around the United States responded when called for women pilots. They were
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
From the moment we are born we are put into one of two categories, boy or girl. We are never asked or considered to be anything but. No in between, no blurred lines. And because of the society we created, we attach extensive stereotypes to each of those genders. This is simply known as gender roles, or more specifically; Ã¢â¬Å"a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sexÃ¢â¬ . This includes all kinds of stereotypes, like, that women should stay home, cook, and be Ã¢â¬Å"girlyÃ¢â¬ , and that men need to be strong, the sole provider of the house, and Ã¢â¬Å"manlyÃ¢â¬ . Not to say you canÃ¢â¬â¢t be those things, but those roles can be very constricting for most of the population. Gender roles can be so restricting that they affect our lifestyle, workplace, and mentality and self image. Ã¢â¬Å"Pereira observed both boys and girls regulating their behavior in potentially harmful ways in order to adhere to gender norms.Ã¢â¬ (Culp-Ressler) Gender roles can make anyone who strives for that Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ lifestyle have a very demanding and oppressive life. What I mean by this is that, the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ life we envision, even if it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what we want, it makes us feel like we have to fulfill those roles. Now, everyone feels and deals with things differently. With the gender roles that girls need to be skinny and pretty and guys need to be strong and tough, it gets to kids and can affect them for the rest ofShow MoreRelatedGender Roles And Its Effects On Society1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Roles In Todays Society Are Due To Nurture Society today places many ideals when it comes to proper behaviours regarding gender roles. These are considered societal norms that are widely debated and controversial. 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There are debates about whether gender is defined by strictly biological characteristics or social attributes. Others argue that gender is a spectrum, rather than the dichotomy of male and female. Masculinity and femininity are sets of attributes, roles and behaviors that are associated with men and boys and girls and women, respectively. Both m asculinity and femininity have specific traits that are both biologically and socially definedRead MoreEssay about Gender Dysphoria Caused by Gender Identity776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Gender Dysphoria caused by Gender Identity Introduction Gender as defined by society as a division between biological sex and the roles you must take on in society. In reality gender is a true spectrum that does not follow a simple linear pattern. There are three major aspects that make a person who they are inside. These aspects are Sex, Gender and Gender Identity. Gender Identity Gender identity is basically the concept that gender is not easily divided into two classic genders as isRead More Gender Inequality: Sex Discrimination in Employment Essay1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Gender equality is about equal opportunity for men and women to identify their individual potential. One must be able to benefit from their participation in society and contribute to the economic and social development of their country (Australian Government. 2009). Through multiple reviewed literature on gender inequality, the overall concept within many sociological readings was the way gender inequality socially relates to employment and careers. There are three separate themes thatRead MoreThe Illusion Of Masculinity And Its Effects On Society1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMasculinity The gender roles for males is a social construct in which sets men in the position to certain behavioral, emotional, and social norms within a society or specific culture in which individuals have to adhere in their social environment. How does that shape ones identity and sense of self? Also, what are the repercussions to ascribing to these roles as a base model for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social life? In this abstract I will explore the effects for hyper masculinity in American, the individual effects and also
string(32) " demise of the French monarchy\." This paper probes in the historical events included in the Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette. At the offset, the movie presented the events that have transpired in French history with fresh eyes. The result is both interesting and engaging. We will write a custom essay sample on Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is interesting in the sense that the form (which is film) through which history was rendered provided entertainment to the viewers. At the same time, the movie is engaging as it was able to capture the historical events that, to me, challenged the viewers to analyze history deeper. In this paper, I will highlight the historical allusions in the movie that coincide in the last instance with the actual events that occurred in France more than two centuries ago. I will show that, among others, the film articulated the extravagant life of Marie Antoinette, the French Revolution, the Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ side of the queen, and the period of Enlightenment. The fifth element that I will focus on is what the film unwittingly revealed in its precise attempt to conceal Ã¢â¬â that is the fact that Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI are not innocent victims.Ã I will argue that the tenuous conflation of film and history proved a success (and failure) in the case of Marie Antoinette. . Music as Social Critique Of all its features, Ã¢â¬Å"Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬ was an interesting cinematic experience because of the music. It is through music that the film was able to convey a historical account of Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is already commonplace that Marie Antoinette lived a life of luxury, and the film showed this from the beginning until the end. According to historical records, Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle was too extravagant that the general populace suffered (see Fraser 2001). Ã This affluence of French royalty was showcased in the film with the help of music. It was a joy to watch French royalty in their elaborate garb cavorting with their consorts and ladies-in-waiting to the sound of 80s post-punk. Perhaps to evoke the ironic joie de vivre of the 80s juxtaposed to the dionysian lifestyle (as opposed to hedonism) of the French king and queen and her court, they danced to an adaptation of Siouxsie and the BansheeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hong Kong GardenÃ¢â¬ which was played by a string ensemble. The song then segued into the original post-punk version signifying a higher level of joy and abandon for everyone. In one scene, The CureÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"PlainsongÃ¢â¬ was played during the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s coronation Ã¢â¬â an important and extensive shot taken on the steps of the Versailles. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always thought that the music of The Cure was cinematic but the band evoked visions of modern dystopia for me- of highways, electric poles and sad abandoned factories; instead of men wearing wigs and tights and women with exposed bosoms under dainty parasols during the last gasps of European feudalism. The forlorn but quintessential New Order song, Ã¢â¬Å"CeremonyÃ¢â¬ is played in another party scene to create a contrast to the revelry of the French royal upperclass. Jarring as these may have been, these clever bits of musical scoring not only comprise the best thing about the film but also serve as its ideological heart. Of course, the average listener is not expected to recognize many of these songs. In fact, in most parts, what one hears are just instrumental excerpts from some obscure track of a particular musical genre from the 90s labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"shoegazeÃ¢â¬ music. While this cultural referencing from the early 90s in film is unusual (only Araki has done this to much success in Ã¢â¬Å"The Doom GenerationÃ¢â¬ which was made during the early 90s), it is also apt since these attempts highlight all the more the cinematic traits of the dated but enduring genre. The contribution of Kevin Shields (who also did work for Lost in Translation) from the legendary shoegaze band My Bloody Valentine as well as the excellent selections from current Swedish band The Radio Dept. attest to the Ã¢â¬Å"hipÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"credÃ¢â¬ consistency in Sofia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s work as well as indicating her appreciation for the lost musical genre. Remember that in her first critically acclaimed oeuvre, Ã¢â¬Å"The Virgin Suicides,Ã¢â¬ she also featured in the soundtrack the French duo with high Ã¢â¬Å"credÃ¢â¬ points Ã¢â¬â Air. However, this time around, I believe that the clever use of contemporary music serves a purpose beyond achieving the Ã¢â¬Å"coolness factorÃ¢â¬ that the director is known for. It foregrounds an interesting but controversial take on a pivotal moment in the history of western society. History in/through Cinema Not only did the film powerfully show the frivolous existence of Marie Antoinette and the French Monarchy but also the manner by which this existence was put to an end by the French people. The French Revolution was only shown at the last scenes of the film yet it serves a potent reminder of how the oppressed classes of French society stood up and fought. If only for this, the film briefly yet powerfully captured the historical change that transpired during the French Revolution of 1793. It must be noted though that the death of Marie Antoinette and other French royalties indeed sparked hope, however brief a moment. I say this since the French monarchy was soon after replaced by the rule of the bourgeois (see Doyle 2001). This transition was no longer included in the film yet the fact remains that the vital force of the French Revolution served as a compelling conclusion in the life of Marie Antoinette. Marie Antoinette and the Louis-Auguste were the King and Queen of France at the onset of the historic French Revolution. This event marked the political culmination of the unprecedented social and economic changes that began with the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. It represented the victory of an emerging economic order whose political form was represented by the French Republicans. At the prodding of the bourgeois liberals who pushed for the republican ideals of the right to suffrage and democratic leadership, the peasants stormed the Bastille and later the royal palace of Versailles effectively heralding the demise of the French monarchy. You read "Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History" in category "Essay examples" The defeat of the royalists as manifested in the violent deaths of Queen Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI by the guillotine and the subsequent rise of the French Republic meant new political and social arrangements that to some represent the defining shift from the Ã¢â¬Å"Dark AgesÃ¢â¬ to the Modern Era. One of this epochÃ¢â¬â¢s key features is the ascendancy of the belief that, finally, manÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny is in its own hands and not under the control of some sovereign and God-ordained power as represented by the monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church. Simultaneous, therefore, with the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s showing of the French Revolution is the showing of the period of Enlightenment.Ã This includes the understanding that societies are wholly human artifacts subject to the collective will and power of the people that ideologically challenged the class structure of not only the monarchy and its feudal base but also early capitalism and its liberal pretensions. Many therefore, including Marie Antoinette, interpret the French revolution as a progressive step away from the extreme inequities of feudal society and monarchical political formations and some quarters even regard it as an event that points to the possibility of egalitarian human societies (see also Lancaster 1953). Marie Antoinette and Modernity However, the film Ã¢â¬Å"Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬ takes on a different stance regarding modernity. For Coppola and Antonia Fraser, whose book the film was based on, to depict the relatively unknown but human story of the Princess of Vienna who became Queen of France from the other side of Ã¢â¬Å"his-toryÃ¢â¬ so-to-speak, is in itself an important statement. More so because Marie Antoinette is mistakenly vilified in history texts as the callous Queen who, in the midst of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s bread shortage and general economic crisis, allegedly quipped Ã¢â¬Å"let them eat cakeÃ¢â¬ in all her regal pomposity (see Thomas 1999). Coppola shows to us instead a sympathetic and unknown side to the lives of these pampered royalties. The film takes great pains to show the struggle of Marie Antoinette and the King as they fit in to the unreasonable demands of being royalties as well as the privileges that they enjoyed. We are made to understand their humanity as they recapture their innocence in the Dionysian abandon of royal masquerades, deal with deaths in the family, and even suffer the distinct boredom of the rich and spoiled. Some historians have also tried to present us this Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ side of Marie Antoinette and the French Monarchy. According to their studies, Marie Antoinette is not as evil as popularly presupposed (see Fraser 2001). Apparently, this is the same point the movie is trying to make. That is why when the mob arrived at the palace gates, we are immediately herded by the film to the side of royalty since it is they who we are more familiar with; it is they who we found funny and endearing. Never mind that it is the moment of justice for the angry multitude as they vent out their anger after centuries of carrying the feudal yoke in order to provide the monarchs with the resources for their grand lifestyle and capricious wars. Never mind that it is modernity and human progress that is, in a manner of speaking, knocking on the gates of Versailles and that this singular event would inspire movements of liberation throughout the world including our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s own struggle against colonizers. Coppola deftly avoids all these issues by framing this historical narrative through Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. What is presented to us instead is the consistent template in film of how individuals, in the general sense, are victimized by historyÃ¢â¬â¢s unsentimental march. It subtly laments Maria Antoinette and Louis XVIÃ¢â¬â¢s persecution since they were merely thrown into circumstances they did not choose. The reach of the royal imagination, the film seemingly apologizes, cannot go beyond the intricate pastries, the petticoats and the other regal accoutrements of their regal existence. Thus, when the mob, who was comprised of the first liberals in their original incarnation, demanded the King and QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s literal heads, a degree of sadness was warranted. There was no indignation expressed in the film akin to the moral appeal of the liberal critique against Stalin (Ã¢â¬Å"the revolution will devour its own children,Ã¢â¬ and it seems that the liberals also had an appetite for pale monarchs), but through a somewhat Nietzschean lamentation for the lost of dionysian beauty and innocence. This was expressed in the film in a lingering shot of a defiled royal salon after the mob stormed the palace. The room was once full of vibrant life, colors, opulence and laughter. Now, it was a drab grey room of broken furniture and torn curtains perhaps anticipating the abandoned factories of Manchester. Was Coppola intimating the view that historyÃ¢â¬â¢s march towards modernity must be interpreted in this way? Does she share the same dystopic vision of modern society as those espoused by this band of angsty and socially dysfunctional philosophers in the persons of Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Foucault whose disdain for modernity is legendary and influential to this day? The Element of Ahistoricity in Marie Antoinette By focusing therefore with the intricacies in the life of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, the film was able make the audience sympathize with them. The possible danger here is the dilution of the revolution which culminated in the reign of Maria Antoinette and Louis XVI. Some studies have also pointed out the quirks of the royal couple without dismissing the crime that they have committed (see Cronin 1989). The use of contemporary cultural references for an otherwise period setting is therefore an important element in the light of these observations. The film achieves an ahistorical sheen as if insisting that its lessons are timeless if not enduring to this day. It seems to argue an interesting point Ã¢â¬â that the fate of Maria Antoinette and Louis XVI, who also danced to Siouxsie and the BansheeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hong Kong GardenÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â they in an elaborate ball and we in our dingy night clubs Ã¢â¬â are also our shared destinies. We are, in a manner of speaking, modernityÃ¢â¬â¢s common victims. If the two were hanged by a vengeful mob at the cusp of modernity, we are its sad disenfranchised heirs existing in the rubble of modernity as a failed experiment two centuries hence. This is the shared stance of thinkers such as Nietzsche, Heidegger and Foucault. Modern life is synonymous to mediocrity, alienation (or inauthenticity) and debilitating bio-power (that society is one big prison and there is no escape). Our only refuge is towards individualism, introspection, and caring for the self. What better way to drive home this point through music than to employ the sensibility of post-punkÃ¢â¬â¢s true heirs Ã¢â¬â shoegaze. There are some interesting parallelisms between developments in social theory and popular culture. There was an attempt by the counter-cultural folk movement of the 60s in translating its agenda into a potent political force. However, the failure of the Paris Commune coincided with the cooptation of folk into Ã¢â¬Å"hippieÃ¢â¬ -dom and later corporate arena rock. In the academe, a post-political (or post-socialist condition) also assumed an influential position wherein the likes of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Foucault became the gurus of a veiled individualism that places in its diametrical opposite society and history. Punk presented a brief respite attracting a wide section of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s disaffected and unemployed youth under Thatcherism but eventually folded because of its nihilism and absence of class politics. This resignation is now embodied in the broad post-punk category that includes a variety of styles Ã¢â¬â self-referential and heavily sentimental at times while being angular and loud in others. Most of these bands eschewed the political and even anarchic stance of punk and insisted on appropriating an introspective tone while salvaging the innocent harmonies of The Beach Boys and the pop songcraft of the Beatles from the 60s. Of course, in the larger context, mass culture was the more dominant cultural form where artists such as Madonna and Michael Jackson represented the new apex in consumerist popular culture. In the sub-cultural field, however, the post-punk ethos was eventually adapted by a new musical movement that melded together the dark undertones of cult bands such as Joy Division and The Cure with the ethereal pop sound of The Cocteau Twins and the drone of The Velvet Underground in the late 80s to early 90s. The result is a musical movement that has come be labeled as shoegaze because of the penchant of these genreÃ¢â¬â¢s guitar players to look down on their effects boxes to create their complex and dense signature guitar sound. Meanwhile, in the academe, the same sensibilities are also gaining ground with the fashionable rise of postmodernism and its celebration of eclecticism, ahistoricity, identity politics and a deep and unrelenting individualism. It is, thus, no accident that these post-punk and the shoegaze movements found its most rabid supporters among the college set. By the 90s, the cult status of these sub-genres has imploded into the mainstream with the rise of the Ã¢â¬Å"alternativeÃ¢â¬ and Nirvana. With its wall of feedback, unintelligible vocals and sweeping melancholia, shoegazeÃ¢â¬â¢s sound performs the sad and confused resignation of the post-political era. Marie Antoinette now follows a long line of fashionably sad cultural icons that include Kurt Cobain and the wind-swept plastic bag in Ã¢â¬Å"American Beauty.Ã¢â¬ These films make a claim for sadness as the universal currency of modernity whether you be of royal lineage or a working class clone (or even an inanimate object) and our only balm or remedy is to wallow in Kevin ShieldÃ¢â¬â¢s eloquent but loud and beautiful sound of sadness as we mourn the death of all-too-human Marie Antoinette Ã¢â¬â our new postmodern pop icon. But of course we know better. Therefore, what the film tried to do was paint Marie Antoinette as a victim of history. What strikes us as suspicious is our knowledge that she had the choice to change the social system. What prevented them for doing so was perhaps their passionate attachment to what the French people are asking them to give up. It was of course tremendously difficult for Marie Antoinette to give up her lifestyle that rests on the wretchedness of the general populace since it was perhaps what she has been used to all her life. This is precisely the problem with the ideological stakes raised by the film and the philosophical persuasions that side with such a dystopic reading of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s past, present and future. For that matter, these also draw attention to the utter lack of radical promise among the educated American youth because an assessment of even indie culture indicates that they are either too emo, fragmented and individualist to wield any form of potent politics unlike their French forbearers who were willing to destroy the monarchy in order to build liberal democracy. Modernity continues to be a necessary human project in the light of the continuing inequalities of our modern life. Men and women must not relent in the political task of charting the direction of human history, the sadness and violence of the struggle notwithstanding. Works Cited: Cronin, Vincent, Louis and Antoinette. London: The Harvill Press, 1989. Doyle, William The Oxford history of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Fraser, Lady Antonia. Marie Antoinette, The Journey. New York: Anchor, 2006. Lancaster, Carrington. French Tragedy in the Reign of Louis XVI: And the Early Years of the French Revolution, 1774-1792. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1953. Thomas, Chantal. The Wicked Queen: The Origins of the Myth of Marie-Antoinette. trans. by Julie Rose. London: Zone Books, 2001. How to cite Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Review on ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Architecture of Srivijaya and Malayu Essay Indianization would seem to predate Islam in the islands of Indonesia.Ã Early evidences, such as the remains of Hindu-Buddhist temples, and smaller ones equivalent to the present-day chapel, known as stupa, dating as far back as the pre-Islamic era of the 9th century A.D., have been unearthed and studied by scholars from both the Western and Eastern schools of thought.Ã Diagoro Chihara mentions in his book two major ancient kingdoms in the said era, as being dominant figures in the world of ancient Buddhism-Hinduism, and whose recent discoveries through excavations have proven IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong influence with the succeeding Islamic religion and culture that later ruled the region; they are the Srivijaya and Malayu (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Srivijaya and MalayuDiscoveries made through excavations in the 19th and 20th centuries have established that as early as 850 AD, as was seen in an inscription found at Nalanda, Srivijaya was gifted by Balaputra, a Sumatran king of the era, of a monastery temple for the religious followers from Java.Ã The succeeding discovery of another inscription bearing the date 1005 AD, known as the Larger Leyden Plate, and which also bore the writings of the said giving of monastery, further solidifies the notion that SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s king as being related to the dynasty of the SailendrasÃ¢â¬â¢ kings (Chihara, 1996, p. 210).Ã Evidences presented by Chihara point to the economic prospering of Srivijaya during the 10th century as a consequence of the ArabsÃ¢â¬â¢ expeditions of on the Indian Ocean in search of an alternative route to the Silk Road. This activity of the Arabs resulted in the monopolization by the Srivijaya of the trade and commerce from both the East and the West.Ã This was evidenced by the fact that both the Chinese and the Arabs both have names for this kingdom: San fo chÃ¢â¬â¢i and Zabag, respectively (Chihara, 1996, p. 210).SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢ decline in both its economic and military might began i n 990 AD, with the king of an eastern Java Kadiri dynasty attempting to conquer Sumatra.Ã However, the battle ended with SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s victory in 1006 AD which resulted in the death of the invaderÃ¢â¬â¢s king, Dharmavamsa.It was the Cola dynasty of southern India, however, that succeeded in ending the Srivijayan Empire.Ã This dynasty first emerged in the middle of the 9th century, and had reached its zenith of power between 985 and 1044 AD, with King Rajaraja and the succession of his son, Rajendra (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Ã Kedah, one of the major towns of Srivijaya, was conquered by the Colas in 1015, and in the ensuing battle SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s king was captured and the entire kingdom pillaged.Ã This was the reason for the kingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual economic downfall, that by the middle part of the following century, the capital of Sumatra had been moved to Jambi.During the 12th century, Malayu came into existence in Jambi, the same place where SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s waning of its power became apparent, and by the start of 13th century, Malayu had totally superseded the former as the authority in the region.Ã However, MalayuÃ¢â¬â¢s reign proved short-lived.Ã In the mid-13th century, the kingdom was conquered by Kertanagara, belonging to Singhasari dynasty from the eastern part of Java.Ã Left with no recourse, the Malayu enterd a matrimonial alliance with their conquerors and had thus retained their kingdom, but only as a colony of the Singhasari Dynasty (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Resurrected TemplesAmong all the 13,000+ islands of Indonesia, Sumatra is the most geographically-strategic island, with regards to the sea routes that connects India, China, and the routes of Spice Trades of the era, and understandably, Indianization had found its way earlier here than in other islands such as Java.Ã However, compared with neighboring islands like Java, Sumatra had a small population and was underdeveloped.Ã As a result, archeological st udies in the modern age had been far too few in Sumatra, and in fact only in recent times had the authorities in Indonesia busied itself with discovering past relics of its civilization.Many archeological sites relating to Hindu-Buddhist religion have been discovered in Batang Hari, in the province of Jambi, and along the Malay Peninsula, which was also under the rule of Srivijaya.Ã In Chaiya, Thailand, a town 550 kms. south of Bangkok, various remains have also been discovered bearing designs and styles similar to that of Srivijaya, with most of them belonging to Mahayana Buddhism style.Ã Perhaps the Srivijayan influence in the southern part of Thailand had continued and was assimilated into the Sukhothai art in the 13th century.Ã Official records would reveal that in Chaiya alone in the year 775, three Mahayana temples were built by an unnamed king of Srivijaya.Ã Consequent diggings in 1946 led to the discovery of yet another temple, measuring 30m square, and thought t o be built somewhere in the 9th century (Chihara, 1996, p. 213).Ã Various temples in Chaiya considered to have been built during the Srivijayan era also abound, but due to the restoration works done by in the past, their original architectures have been lost forever.In Padang Lawas, which translates to vast plain in Thai, various temples have also been unearthed dating back to the Malayu era, seven of which can be reached by trekking.Ã During his travels to the sites, Diagoro Chihara describes these temples as:Each complex consists of an enclosure surrounded by a wall inside of which there stands a main sanctuary, which appears to have been a single-chambered cella, together with a smaller chapel, a stupa, and terraces that are thought to have been surmounted by wooden structures. (p. 215)The Srivijaya buildings were made with bricks, similar in almost all the places their temples were found.Ã These bricks measured 28 cms. long, 17 cms. high, and 5 cms. wide (Chihara, 1996, p. 216).Ã Their architecture generally consists of the 3 components of podium, body and roof, with the upper portion of the roof noticeably embedded with a stupa (Chihara, 1996, p. 216).In Muara Takus, a province of Riau, Buddhist temples have been found, already in its dilapidated stage.Ã These temples are considered to date back from the 11th or the 12th century.Ã Excavations in this site were first done in 1893, and then again in 1935, but it was only in 1980 that the Indonesian authorities made its own excavation and tried to restore the temples back to its original state (Chihara, 1996, p. 217).Ã According to the excavation leader in 1935, Schnitger, the site was composed of six temples surrounded by walls, with a gate estimated to be in the middle of the north wall.Ã He had also found a Maligai Stupa, which was somewhat similar to the styles in India and Sri Lanka, and bore a unique form uncommon in all of the other excavations in Indonesia or Thailand (Chihara , 1996, p. 217).ConclusionDiagoro ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s studies on Srivijaya and Malayu had made evident to his readers the extent of the vastness and depth IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural style had manifested in other countryÃ¢â¬â¢s religious beliefs and culture, particularly those of Indonesia and Thailand.Ã These influences, evident in the arts and in religious temples of other kingdoms; first evidenced in Srivijaya, and later in Malayu culture, had seemed to have outlasted the very kingdoms that were the sources for this inspiration.Chihara had also shown a glimpse of the culture of the said empires pre-dating Islamic and colonial era of both Indonesia and Thailand, and what was evident was that both of this present day nations had in their past, a history of Hindu-Buddhism, and that their respective kings of the ancient era, had lineage directly traceable to the dynastic rulers in India.Ã This should prove imperative to the present administrations and the populace, in general.Ã They should realize ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s unspoken lesson: that what they are today as a nation, is the result of who they were in the past eons.ReferenceChihara, D. (1996). The Architecture of Srivijaya and Malayu. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia (pp. 211-221) (ISBN 9004105123, 9789004105126). Leiden New York Ã¢â¬â Koln.