Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sarbashree Rayamajhi EN_101-A Professor Jay Petrillo 05/05/2017 Women in aviation Ã¢â¬Å"Flying was a tangible freedom, In those days, it was beauty, adventure, discovery-the epitome of breaking into new words.Ã¢â¬ says Anna Marrow Lindberg, an American aviator, author and first woman to fly glider plane. Aviation industry has grown rapidly worldwide. The air traffic grows at the rate of 3-5% per year. This dramatical growth means a considerable growth of aviators.Womens have always been a part of aviation since earliest days yet they are in less number. From E.Lillian Todd, who designed aircraft in 1906 to Kate McWilliams, youngest pilot for the commercial airline, women have always contributed in aviation. Even though worldÃ¢â¬â¢s gender split isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They were trained to fly the Ã¢â¬Å"military-wayÃ¢â¬ , they were trained to fly B-29 Superfortress, which was considered to be one of the most heavy and dangerous flights. Their job included high level of danger.The WASP flew aircraft to destinations across the country. They piloted to low-target in training missions.They flew cargo and top secret weapons, and were test pilots. Even in military, discrimination against WASP existed at every level of their service. Women were paid only two-third than male pilots even though they performed exactly the same duty. In one instance, the military replaced two female pilots with an all-male crew just fifteen minutes before they were to pilot a plane across the Atlantic. People believed that women were emotionally and physically sensitive and questioned their capability to handle their responsibility in war. Some commanders even believed that women did not have the stamina to handle the strain of towing targets for gunnery practice. At times, women pilots were grounded by male commanders during their menstrual cycle every month because of the widespread stereotype that they were less efficient during their menstrual cycle. However, the WASP put this inaccurate and narrow thinking to an end by proving with their flying records that they were better pilots even on the first day of their cycles. Despite the discrimination, young women from all around the United States responded when called for women pilots. They were
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
From the moment we are born we are put into one of two categories, boy or girl. We are never asked or considered to be anything but. No in between, no blurred lines. And because of the society we created, we attach extensive stereotypes to each of those genders. This is simply known as gender roles, or more specifically; Ã¢â¬Å"a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sexÃ¢â¬ . This includes all kinds of stereotypes, like, that women should stay home, cook, and be Ã¢â¬Å"girlyÃ¢â¬ , and that men need to be strong, the sole provider of the house, and Ã¢â¬Å"manlyÃ¢â¬ . Not to say you canÃ¢â¬â¢t be those things, but those roles can be very constricting for most of the population. Gender roles can be so restricting that they affect our lifestyle, workplace, and mentality and self image. Ã¢â¬Å"Pereira observed both boys and girls regulating their behavior in potentially harmful ways in order to adhere to gender norms.Ã¢â¬ (Culp-Ressler) Gender roles can make anyone who strives for that Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ lifestyle have a very demanding and oppressive life. What I mean by this is that, the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ life we envision, even if it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what we want, it makes us feel like we have to fulfill those roles. Now, everyone feels and deals with things differently. With the gender roles that girls need to be skinny and pretty and guys need to be strong and tough, it gets to kids and can affect them for the rest ofShow MoreRelatedGender Roles And Its Effects On Society1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Roles In Todays Society Are Due To Nurture Society today places many ideals when it comes to proper behaviours regarding gender roles. These are considered societal norms that are widely debated and controversial. 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The media reinforces stereotypical roles by the way the media portrays men and women. The destructive impact of advertisement affects everyone, specifically women and their deteriorating confidence. The most corruptive impact of adver tising is its promotion of gender stereotypes. Men in advertisements are pictured as strong, powerfulRead MoreGender Roles Of Men And Women Have Been Present In Society1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender roles of men and women have been present in society for a number of years, and the traditional roles have stuck through all the cultural changes. What about the people who do not identify themselves with their born gender but, instead another? How are they affected by how society sees them for not conforming to the traditional gender roles? 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There are debates about whether gender is defined by strictly biological characteristics or social attributes. Others argue that gender is a spectrum, rather than the dichotomy of male and female. Masculinity and femininity are sets of attributes, roles and behaviors that are associated with men and boys and girls and women, respectively. Both m asculinity and femininity have specific traits that are both biologically and socially definedRead MoreEssay about Gender Dysphoria Caused by Gender Identity776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Gender Dysphoria caused by Gender Identity Introduction Gender as defined by society as a division between biological sex and the roles you must take on in society. In reality gender is a true spectrum that does not follow a simple linear pattern. There are three major aspects that make a person who they are inside. These aspects are Sex, Gender and Gender Identity. Gender Identity Gender identity is basically the concept that gender is not easily divided into two classic genders as isRead More Gender Inequality: Sex Discrimination in Employment Essay1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Gender equality is about equal opportunity for men and women to identify their individual potential. One must be able to benefit from their participation in society and contribute to the economic and social development of their country (Australian Government. 2009). Through multiple reviewed literature on gender inequality, the overall concept within many sociological readings was the way gender inequality socially relates to employment and careers. There are three separate themes thatRead MoreThe Illusion Of Masculinity And Its Effects On Society1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMasculinity The gender roles for males is a social construct in which sets men in the position to certain behavioral, emotional, and social norms within a society or specific culture in which individuals have to adhere in their social environment. How does that shape ones identity and sense of self? Also, what are the repercussions to ascribing to these roles as a base model for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social life? In this abstract I will explore the effects for hyper masculinity in American, the individual effects and also
string(32) " demise of the French monarchy\." This paper probes in the historical events included in the Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette. At the offset, the movie presented the events that have transpired in French history with fresh eyes. The result is both interesting and engaging. We will write a custom essay sample on Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is interesting in the sense that the form (which is film) through which history was rendered provided entertainment to the viewers. At the same time, the movie is engaging as it was able to capture the historical events that, to me, challenged the viewers to analyze history deeper. In this paper, I will highlight the historical allusions in the movie that coincide in the last instance with the actual events that occurred in France more than two centuries ago. I will show that, among others, the film articulated the extravagant life of Marie Antoinette, the French Revolution, the Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ side of the queen, and the period of Enlightenment. The fifth element that I will focus on is what the film unwittingly revealed in its precise attempt to conceal Ã¢â¬â that is the fact that Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI are not innocent victims.Ã I will argue that the tenuous conflation of film and history proved a success (and failure) in the case of Marie Antoinette. . Music as Social Critique Of all its features, Ã¢â¬Å"Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬ was an interesting cinematic experience because of the music. It is through music that the film was able to convey a historical account of Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is already commonplace that Marie Antoinette lived a life of luxury, and the film showed this from the beginning until the end. According to historical records, Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle was too extravagant that the general populace suffered (see Fraser 2001). Ã This affluence of French royalty was showcased in the film with the help of music. It was a joy to watch French royalty in their elaborate garb cavorting with their consorts and ladies-in-waiting to the sound of 80s post-punk. Perhaps to evoke the ironic joie de vivre of the 80s juxtaposed to the dionysian lifestyle (as opposed to hedonism) of the French king and queen and her court, they danced to an adaptation of Siouxsie and the BansheeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hong Kong GardenÃ¢â¬ which was played by a string ensemble. The song then segued into the original post-punk version signifying a higher level of joy and abandon for everyone. In one scene, The CureÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"PlainsongÃ¢â¬ was played during the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s coronation Ã¢â¬â an important and extensive shot taken on the steps of the Versailles. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always thought that the music of The Cure was cinematic but the band evoked visions of modern dystopia for me- of highways, electric poles and sad abandoned factories; instead of men wearing wigs and tights and women with exposed bosoms under dainty parasols during the last gasps of European feudalism. The forlorn but quintessential New Order song, Ã¢â¬Å"CeremonyÃ¢â¬ is played in another party scene to create a contrast to the revelry of the French royal upperclass. Jarring as these may have been, these clever bits of musical scoring not only comprise the best thing about the film but also serve as its ideological heart. Of course, the average listener is not expected to recognize many of these songs. In fact, in most parts, what one hears are just instrumental excerpts from some obscure track of a particular musical genre from the 90s labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"shoegazeÃ¢â¬ music. While this cultural referencing from the early 90s in film is unusual (only Araki has done this to much success in Ã¢â¬Å"The Doom GenerationÃ¢â¬ which was made during the early 90s), it is also apt since these attempts highlight all the more the cinematic traits of the dated but enduring genre. The contribution of Kevin Shields (who also did work for Lost in Translation) from the legendary shoegaze band My Bloody Valentine as well as the excellent selections from current Swedish band The Radio Dept. attest to the Ã¢â¬Å"hipÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"credÃ¢â¬ consistency in Sofia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s work as well as indicating her appreciation for the lost musical genre. Remember that in her first critically acclaimed oeuvre, Ã¢â¬Å"The Virgin Suicides,Ã¢â¬ she also featured in the soundtrack the French duo with high Ã¢â¬Å"credÃ¢â¬ points Ã¢â¬â Air. However, this time around, I believe that the clever use of contemporary music serves a purpose beyond achieving the Ã¢â¬Å"coolness factorÃ¢â¬ that the director is known for. It foregrounds an interesting but controversial take on a pivotal moment in the history of western society. History in/through Cinema Not only did the film powerfully show the frivolous existence of Marie Antoinette and the French Monarchy but also the manner by which this existence was put to an end by the French people. The French Revolution was only shown at the last scenes of the film yet it serves a potent reminder of how the oppressed classes of French society stood up and fought. If only for this, the film briefly yet powerfully captured the historical change that transpired during the French Revolution of 1793. It must be noted though that the death of Marie Antoinette and other French royalties indeed sparked hope, however brief a moment. I say this since the French monarchy was soon after replaced by the rule of the bourgeois (see Doyle 2001). This transition was no longer included in the film yet the fact remains that the vital force of the French Revolution served as a compelling conclusion in the life of Marie Antoinette. Marie Antoinette and the Louis-Auguste were the King and Queen of France at the onset of the historic French Revolution. This event marked the political culmination of the unprecedented social and economic changes that began with the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. It represented the victory of an emerging economic order whose political form was represented by the French Republicans. At the prodding of the bourgeois liberals who pushed for the republican ideals of the right to suffrage and democratic leadership, the peasants stormed the Bastille and later the royal palace of Versailles effectively heralding the demise of the French monarchy. You read "Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History" in category "Essay examples" The defeat of the royalists as manifested in the violent deaths of Queen Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI by the guillotine and the subsequent rise of the French Republic meant new political and social arrangements that to some represent the defining shift from the Ã¢â¬Å"Dark AgesÃ¢â¬ to the Modern Era. One of this epochÃ¢â¬â¢s key features is the ascendancy of the belief that, finally, manÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny is in its own hands and not under the control of some sovereign and God-ordained power as represented by the monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church. Simultaneous, therefore, with the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s showing of the French Revolution is the showing of the period of Enlightenment.Ã This includes the understanding that societies are wholly human artifacts subject to the collective will and power of the people that ideologically challenged the class structure of not only the monarchy and its feudal base but also early capitalism and its liberal pretensions. Many therefore, including Marie Antoinette, interpret the French revolution as a progressive step away from the extreme inequities of feudal society and monarchical political formations and some quarters even regard it as an event that points to the possibility of egalitarian human societies (see also Lancaster 1953). Marie Antoinette and Modernity However, the film Ã¢â¬Å"Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬ takes on a different stance regarding modernity. For Coppola and Antonia Fraser, whose book the film was based on, to depict the relatively unknown but human story of the Princess of Vienna who became Queen of France from the other side of Ã¢â¬Å"his-toryÃ¢â¬ so-to-speak, is in itself an important statement. More so because Marie Antoinette is mistakenly vilified in history texts as the callous Queen who, in the midst of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s bread shortage and general economic crisis, allegedly quipped Ã¢â¬Å"let them eat cakeÃ¢â¬ in all her regal pomposity (see Thomas 1999). Coppola shows to us instead a sympathetic and unknown side to the lives of these pampered royalties. The film takes great pains to show the struggle of Marie Antoinette and the King as they fit in to the unreasonable demands of being royalties as well as the privileges that they enjoyed. We are made to understand their humanity as they recapture their innocence in the Dionysian abandon of royal masquerades, deal with deaths in the family, and even suffer the distinct boredom of the rich and spoiled. Some historians have also tried to present us this Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ side of Marie Antoinette and the French Monarchy. According to their studies, Marie Antoinette is not as evil as popularly presupposed (see Fraser 2001). Apparently, this is the same point the movie is trying to make. That is why when the mob arrived at the palace gates, we are immediately herded by the film to the side of royalty since it is they who we are more familiar with; it is they who we found funny and endearing. Never mind that it is the moment of justice for the angry multitude as they vent out their anger after centuries of carrying the feudal yoke in order to provide the monarchs with the resources for their grand lifestyle and capricious wars. Never mind that it is modernity and human progress that is, in a manner of speaking, knocking on the gates of Versailles and that this singular event would inspire movements of liberation throughout the world including our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s own struggle against colonizers. Coppola deftly avoids all these issues by framing this historical narrative through Marie AntoinetteÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. What is presented to us instead is the consistent template in film of how individuals, in the general sense, are victimized by historyÃ¢â¬â¢s unsentimental march. It subtly laments Maria Antoinette and Louis XVIÃ¢â¬â¢s persecution since they were merely thrown into circumstances they did not choose. The reach of the royal imagination, the film seemingly apologizes, cannot go beyond the intricate pastries, the petticoats and the other regal accoutrements of their regal existence. Thus, when the mob, who was comprised of the first liberals in their original incarnation, demanded the King and QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s literal heads, a degree of sadness was warranted. There was no indignation expressed in the film akin to the moral appeal of the liberal critique against Stalin (Ã¢â¬Å"the revolution will devour its own children,Ã¢â¬ and it seems that the liberals also had an appetite for pale monarchs), but through a somewhat Nietzschean lamentation for the lost of dionysian beauty and innocence. This was expressed in the film in a lingering shot of a defiled royal salon after the mob stormed the palace. The room was once full of vibrant life, colors, opulence and laughter. Now, it was a drab grey room of broken furniture and torn curtains perhaps anticipating the abandoned factories of Manchester. Was Coppola intimating the view that historyÃ¢â¬â¢s march towards modernity must be interpreted in this way? Does she share the same dystopic vision of modern society as those espoused by this band of angsty and socially dysfunctional philosophers in the persons of Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Foucault whose disdain for modernity is legendary and influential to this day? The Element of Ahistoricity in Marie Antoinette By focusing therefore with the intricacies in the life of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, the film was able make the audience sympathize with them. The possible danger here is the dilution of the revolution which culminated in the reign of Maria Antoinette and Louis XVI. Some studies have also pointed out the quirks of the royal couple without dismissing the crime that they have committed (see Cronin 1989). The use of contemporary cultural references for an otherwise period setting is therefore an important element in the light of these observations. The film achieves an ahistorical sheen as if insisting that its lessons are timeless if not enduring to this day. It seems to argue an interesting point Ã¢â¬â that the fate of Maria Antoinette and Louis XVI, who also danced to Siouxsie and the BansheeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hong Kong GardenÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â they in an elaborate ball and we in our dingy night clubs Ã¢â¬â are also our shared destinies. We are, in a manner of speaking, modernityÃ¢â¬â¢s common victims. If the two were hanged by a vengeful mob at the cusp of modernity, we are its sad disenfranchised heirs existing in the rubble of modernity as a failed experiment two centuries hence. This is the shared stance of thinkers such as Nietzsche, Heidegger and Foucault. Modern life is synonymous to mediocrity, alienation (or inauthenticity) and debilitating bio-power (that society is one big prison and there is no escape). Our only refuge is towards individualism, introspection, and caring for the self. What better way to drive home this point through music than to employ the sensibility of post-punkÃ¢â¬â¢s true heirs Ã¢â¬â shoegaze. There are some interesting parallelisms between developments in social theory and popular culture. There was an attempt by the counter-cultural folk movement of the 60s in translating its agenda into a potent political force. However, the failure of the Paris Commune coincided with the cooptation of folk into Ã¢â¬Å"hippieÃ¢â¬ -dom and later corporate arena rock. In the academe, a post-political (or post-socialist condition) also assumed an influential position wherein the likes of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Foucault became the gurus of a veiled individualism that places in its diametrical opposite society and history. Punk presented a brief respite attracting a wide section of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s disaffected and unemployed youth under Thatcherism but eventually folded because of its nihilism and absence of class politics. This resignation is now embodied in the broad post-punk category that includes a variety of styles Ã¢â¬â self-referential and heavily sentimental at times while being angular and loud in others. Most of these bands eschewed the political and even anarchic stance of punk and insisted on appropriating an introspective tone while salvaging the innocent harmonies of The Beach Boys and the pop songcraft of the Beatles from the 60s. Of course, in the larger context, mass culture was the more dominant cultural form where artists such as Madonna and Michael Jackson represented the new apex in consumerist popular culture. In the sub-cultural field, however, the post-punk ethos was eventually adapted by a new musical movement that melded together the dark undertones of cult bands such as Joy Division and The Cure with the ethereal pop sound of The Cocteau Twins and the drone of The Velvet Underground in the late 80s to early 90s. The result is a musical movement that has come be labeled as shoegaze because of the penchant of these genreÃ¢â¬â¢s guitar players to look down on their effects boxes to create their complex and dense signature guitar sound. Meanwhile, in the academe, the same sensibilities are also gaining ground with the fashionable rise of postmodernism and its celebration of eclecticism, ahistoricity, identity politics and a deep and unrelenting individualism. It is, thus, no accident that these post-punk and the shoegaze movements found its most rabid supporters among the college set. By the 90s, the cult status of these sub-genres has imploded into the mainstream with the rise of the Ã¢â¬Å"alternativeÃ¢â¬ and Nirvana. With its wall of feedback, unintelligible vocals and sweeping melancholia, shoegazeÃ¢â¬â¢s sound performs the sad and confused resignation of the post-political era. Marie Antoinette now follows a long line of fashionably sad cultural icons that include Kurt Cobain and the wind-swept plastic bag in Ã¢â¬Å"American Beauty.Ã¢â¬ These films make a claim for sadness as the universal currency of modernity whether you be of royal lineage or a working class clone (or even an inanimate object) and our only balm or remedy is to wallow in Kevin ShieldÃ¢â¬â¢s eloquent but loud and beautiful sound of sadness as we mourn the death of all-too-human Marie Antoinette Ã¢â¬â our new postmodern pop icon. But of course we know better. Therefore, what the film tried to do was paint Marie Antoinette as a victim of history. What strikes us as suspicious is our knowledge that she had the choice to change the social system. What prevented them for doing so was perhaps their passionate attachment to what the French people are asking them to give up. It was of course tremendously difficult for Marie Antoinette to give up her lifestyle that rests on the wretchedness of the general populace since it was perhaps what she has been used to all her life. This is precisely the problem with the ideological stakes raised by the film and the philosophical persuasions that side with such a dystopic reading of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s past, present and future. For that matter, these also draw attention to the utter lack of radical promise among the educated American youth because an assessment of even indie culture indicates that they are either too emo, fragmented and individualist to wield any form of potent politics unlike their French forbearers who were willing to destroy the monarchy in order to build liberal democracy. Modernity continues to be a necessary human project in the light of the continuing inequalities of our modern life. Men and women must not relent in the political task of charting the direction of human history, the sadness and violence of the struggle notwithstanding. Works Cited: Cronin, Vincent, Louis and Antoinette. London: The Harvill Press, 1989. Doyle, William The Oxford history of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Fraser, Lady Antonia. Marie Antoinette, The Journey. New York: Anchor, 2006. Lancaster, Carrington. French Tragedy in the Reign of Louis XVI: And the Early Years of the French Revolution, 1774-1792. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1953. Thomas, Chantal. The Wicked Queen: The Origins of the Myth of Marie-Antoinette. trans. by Julie Rose. London: Zone Books, 2001. How to cite Sophia CoppolaÃ¢â¬â¢s Marie Antoinette and the Traces of History, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Review on ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Architecture of Srivijaya and Malayu Essay Indianization would seem to predate Islam in the islands of Indonesia.Ã Early evidences, such as the remains of Hindu-Buddhist temples, and smaller ones equivalent to the present-day chapel, known as stupa, dating as far back as the pre-Islamic era of the 9th century A.D., have been unearthed and studied by scholars from both the Western and Eastern schools of thought.Ã Diagoro Chihara mentions in his book two major ancient kingdoms in the said era, as being dominant figures in the world of ancient Buddhism-Hinduism, and whose recent discoveries through excavations have proven IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong influence with the succeeding Islamic religion and culture that later ruled the region; they are the Srivijaya and Malayu (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Srivijaya and MalayuDiscoveries made through excavations in the 19th and 20th centuries have established that as early as 850 AD, as was seen in an inscription found at Nalanda, Srivijaya was gifted by Balaputra, a Sumatran king of the era, of a monastery temple for the religious followers from Java.Ã The succeeding discovery of another inscription bearing the date 1005 AD, known as the Larger Leyden Plate, and which also bore the writings of the said giving of monastery, further solidifies the notion that SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s king as being related to the dynasty of the SailendrasÃ¢â¬â¢ kings (Chihara, 1996, p. 210).Ã Evidences presented by Chihara point to the economic prospering of Srivijaya during the 10th century as a consequence of the ArabsÃ¢â¬â¢ expeditions of on the Indian Ocean in search of an alternative route to the Silk Road. This activity of the Arabs resulted in the monopolization by the Srivijaya of the trade and commerce from both the East and the West.Ã This was evidenced by the fact that both the Chinese and the Arabs both have names for this kingdom: San fo chÃ¢â¬â¢i and Zabag, respectively (Chihara, 1996, p. 210).SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢ decline in both its economic and military might began i n 990 AD, with the king of an eastern Java Kadiri dynasty attempting to conquer Sumatra.Ã However, the battle ended with SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s victory in 1006 AD which resulted in the death of the invaderÃ¢â¬â¢s king, Dharmavamsa.It was the Cola dynasty of southern India, however, that succeeded in ending the Srivijayan Empire.Ã This dynasty first emerged in the middle of the 9th century, and had reached its zenith of power between 985 and 1044 AD, with King Rajaraja and the succession of his son, Rajendra (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Ã Kedah, one of the major towns of Srivijaya, was conquered by the Colas in 1015, and in the ensuing battle SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s king was captured and the entire kingdom pillaged.Ã This was the reason for the kingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual economic downfall, that by the middle part of the following century, the capital of Sumatra had been moved to Jambi.During the 12th century, Malayu came into existence in Jambi, the same place where SrivijayaÃ¢â¬â¢s waning of its power became apparent, and by the start of 13th century, Malayu had totally superseded the former as the authority in the region.Ã However, MalayuÃ¢â¬â¢s reign proved short-lived.Ã In the mid-13th century, the kingdom was conquered by Kertanagara, belonging to Singhasari dynasty from the eastern part of Java.Ã Left with no recourse, the Malayu enterd a matrimonial alliance with their conquerors and had thus retained their kingdom, but only as a colony of the Singhasari Dynasty (Chihara, 1996, p. 211).Resurrected TemplesAmong all the 13,000+ islands of Indonesia, Sumatra is the most geographically-strategic island, with regards to the sea routes that connects India, China, and the routes of Spice Trades of the era, and understandably, Indianization had found its way earlier here than in other islands such as Java.Ã However, compared with neighboring islands like Java, Sumatra had a small population and was underdeveloped.Ã As a result, archeological st udies in the modern age had been far too few in Sumatra, and in fact only in recent times had the authorities in Indonesia busied itself with discovering past relics of its civilization.Many archeological sites relating to Hindu-Buddhist religion have been discovered in Batang Hari, in the province of Jambi, and along the Malay Peninsula, which was also under the rule of Srivijaya.Ã In Chaiya, Thailand, a town 550 kms. south of Bangkok, various remains have also been discovered bearing designs and styles similar to that of Srivijaya, with most of them belonging to Mahayana Buddhism style.Ã Perhaps the Srivijayan influence in the southern part of Thailand had continued and was assimilated into the Sukhothai art in the 13th century.Ã Official records would reveal that in Chaiya alone in the year 775, three Mahayana temples were built by an unnamed king of Srivijaya.Ã Consequent diggings in 1946 led to the discovery of yet another temple, measuring 30m square, and thought t o be built somewhere in the 9th century (Chihara, 1996, p. 213).Ã Various temples in Chaiya considered to have been built during the Srivijayan era also abound, but due to the restoration works done by in the past, their original architectures have been lost forever.In Padang Lawas, which translates to vast plain in Thai, various temples have also been unearthed dating back to the Malayu era, seven of which can be reached by trekking.Ã During his travels to the sites, Diagoro Chihara describes these temples as:Each complex consists of an enclosure surrounded by a wall inside of which there stands a main sanctuary, which appears to have been a single-chambered cella, together with a smaller chapel, a stupa, and terraces that are thought to have been surmounted by wooden structures. (p. 215)The Srivijaya buildings were made with bricks, similar in almost all the places their temples were found.Ã These bricks measured 28 cms. long, 17 cms. high, and 5 cms. wide (Chihara, 1996, p. 216).Ã Their architecture generally consists of the 3 components of podium, body and roof, with the upper portion of the roof noticeably embedded with a stupa (Chihara, 1996, p. 216).In Muara Takus, a province of Riau, Buddhist temples have been found, already in its dilapidated stage.Ã These temples are considered to date back from the 11th or the 12th century.Ã Excavations in this site were first done in 1893, and then again in 1935, but it was only in 1980 that the Indonesian authorities made its own excavation and tried to restore the temples back to its original state (Chihara, 1996, p. 217).Ã According to the excavation leader in 1935, Schnitger, the site was composed of six temples surrounded by walls, with a gate estimated to be in the middle of the north wall.Ã He had also found a Maligai Stupa, which was somewhat similar to the styles in India and Sri Lanka, and bore a unique form uncommon in all of the other excavations in Indonesia or Thailand (Chihara , 1996, p. 217).ConclusionDiagoro ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s studies on Srivijaya and Malayu had made evident to his readers the extent of the vastness and depth IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural style had manifested in other countryÃ¢â¬â¢s religious beliefs and culture, particularly those of Indonesia and Thailand.Ã These influences, evident in the arts and in religious temples of other kingdoms; first evidenced in Srivijaya, and later in Malayu culture, had seemed to have outlasted the very kingdoms that were the sources for this inspiration.Chihara had also shown a glimpse of the culture of the said empires pre-dating Islamic and colonial era of both Indonesia and Thailand, and what was evident was that both of this present day nations had in their past, a history of Hindu-Buddhism, and that their respective kings of the ancient era, had lineage directly traceable to the dynastic rulers in India.Ã This should prove imperative to the present administrations and the populace, in general.Ã They should realize ChiharaÃ¢â¬â¢s unspoken lesson: that what they are today as a nation, is the result of who they were in the past eons.ReferenceChihara, D. (1996). The Architecture of Srivijaya and Malayu. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia (pp. 211-221) (ISBN 9004105123, 9789004105126). Leiden New York Ã¢â¬â Koln.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
In Caryll Churchills collaborative drama Cloud Nine, there are some very interesting resonances between acts one and two. As readers, we have to pay close attention to the gender and ethnic backgrounds of the actors, and the significance of who they are portraying. Throughout this play, there are many roles that are filled with cast members who by society, do not seem like the perfect fit for their character. By using the doubling and cross-dressing methods of drama, Churchill is able to develop the gender, race, and sexuality themes of the play. The doubling of Clive and Cathy forced the readers to pay attention to who the actors were, and the significance of the role they were playing. Clive is a father-type figure, who is also the most dominating character throughout all of Caryll Churchills play. His roles as a father, husband, and government administrator allow the readers to see why he is the character with the most control. Clive shows his dominance over the other characters in lines 129-155, when he makes Joshua apologize for being rude to his wife Betty earlier in the day. This scene allows the readers to see that Clive can take over a situation and make his black servant Joshua, feel inferior even though he truly might not have been rude to Betty. Clive also shows his dominance over his wife Betty, when Mrs. Saunders comes to the house on horseback in lines 255 to 260. After saying a few words of admiration about Mrs. Saunders, Clive simply instructs his wife to take care of Mrs. Saunders by saying, ! Mrs. Saunders has ridden here alone. What will you have for her? Tea or something stronger. Betty you will no what to do(Churchill 813). When Clive says this, and Betty does not question the order she has just received from him. By Churchill having the actors accepting their roles, she has eliminated any conflict that might have been an issue if the actors had not acce...
Monday, March 2, 2020
How to Write a Concept Paper on Infection Concept Paper on Infection Purpose of a concept paper on infection How to start the paper How to write the thesis statement How to write the introduction Tips on how to write the introduction and thesis How to write body paragraphs Tips on body writing How to finish the essay Tips on conclusion writing Tips on revision Outline sample Concept paper on Infection (Sample) Purpose of writing a concept paper on infection Concept papers, alternatively known as proposals, are summaries of issues or projects that mirror the interests, expertise, and experience of the writer or organization. Concept papers are written with the purpose of providing a detailed discussion of a subject that the writer firmly believes in, usually with the intention of acquiring funding for that specific project. The phrases Ã¢â¬Å"proposalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"concept paperÃ¢â¬ are often utilized interchangeably because they serve the same purpose. Concept papers can further be utilized as instructional tools that have developed from extensive research, outcomes of a current project, or a committee input. Added to offering guidance for the execution of a program, such papers can also discuss philosophies, best practices, and other related matters that the writer strongly believes in. How to start the paper As you start composing your concept paper on Infection, make sure your chosen topic adheres to the assignment requirements. Carefully go over your topic and ask your instructor for feedback whenever you feel uncertain. Choose a topic that genuinely interests you. It might seem rather obvious, but choosing a topic that you are truly interested in makes the research process more engaging and fun. Upon the selection of your desired topic, conduct extensive research; this is advantageous as it helps you build your chosen topic or alter it in ways that are more fitting. Even though conducting extensive research seems like additional work, it is an advantageous and a time-saving step. Upon the completion of the steps mentioned above, you can now start off your essay by composing an introduction (your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s first section which identifies where and how your mission and the funderÃ¢â¬â¢s mission align or intersect). After composing your introduction, you will then compose your pape rÃ¢â¬â¢s body-paragraphs, which are your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s building blocks as they represent distinct logical steps within your whole argument. Lastly, once you have successfully composed your body-paragraphs, you will compose your conclusion which summarizes your paper and states its significance. How to write the thesis statement After choosing your topic and sorting your ideas into relevant categories, you must then create your thesis. Your thesis statement is written in aims of telling your reader what your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s main point is. Your thesis statement will be separated into two sections. The first section will state your topic whereas the second section will state your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s main point. A perfect, standard place to assert your thesis is at the end of your introductory paragraph. Readers normally find theses there; therefore, they pay special attention when reading your introductionÃ¢â¬â¢s last sentence. How to write the introduction The introduction, your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s first section should incorporate some information concerning the funding agency. Here, you must reveal that you have conducted extensive research and you now fully understand the funding agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and the kinds of projects supported by them. You then need to identify the agency represented by you and how its mission and the funding agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission mesh. Tips on how to write the introduction and thesis Start off broad then narrow down: Concisely describe your concept paper then narrow down to your particular focus. State the importance and aims: Show your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s importance and say what you desire to attain. Keep your introduction short: Try and avoid long introductions. Ensure your thesis is focused and specific. How to write body paragraphs The body paragraphs of your perfect paper will explain your topic. Each body paragraph contains the same structure. As your introductory sentence, begin by writing one of your key ideas. Next, in sentence form, write your supporting ideas but leave four to five lines which you will fill with detailed examples to support your position. Fill these spaces with reasonable information which will link your ideas together. Tips on body writing Begin with a clear topic sentence. Incorporate supporting detail and specific evidence. Cohesion and unity. Transitions between your sentences and your paragraphs must be seamless. A concluding sentence that successfully ties everything together and closes the paragraph. How to finish the essay Your conclusion summarizes and wraps up your overall ideas, all the while giving a final standpoint on your topic. Your conclusion is composed of three to five sentences. Compose your conclusion by reviewing your main points and providing reinforcements of your thesis. Tips on conclusion writing Make it brief. Use your introduction as your guide. Do not add any new information here. Summarize your paper. Make any necessary or beneficial disclaimers. Tips on revision Check En Dashes, Hyphens, and Em Dashes. Mixing up En dashes (Ã¢â¬â), Hyphens (-), and Em dashes (- ) is easy as they all look alike. Thoroughly check your document for every instance of dash usage and pay attention to hyphenated phrases. Check spelling: Check your word processorÃ¢â¬â¢s language setting and ensure the language is consistent throughout. Check headings and formatting: Ensure they are formatted consistently. Check for grammar and syntax errors. Ensure spelling and capitalizations are consistent. Outline sample I. Introduction Sentence capturing your readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest One-Two sentence declaration (thesis statement) II. Body Paragraphs Objectives and Goals/Research Questions Timelines and Methodology Anticipated Outcomes/Benefits III. Conclusion Costs and support needed Concept Paper on Infection (Sample) I. Introduction Nairobi took a major hit when the main clinic went on strike due to a cholera outbreak. As an individual who regularly visits the clinic for my dialysis, I was disgusted by the clinicÃ¢â¬â¢s unkempt state, sewage flowing into the facility, and the overall untidiness of our main clinical facility, which I believe contributed to the cholera outbreak. II. Body paragraphs 1st body-paragraph Truth be told, nobody takes a town that cannot handle its waste disposal and waste management seriously. If one wants his/her local authority to remain strong, he/she cannot issue mandates from a flood of overflowing sewage and empty medicine boxes. I believe I can be of great assistance in helping NairobiÃ¢â¬â¢s main clinic regain its authority. With assistance from my crew, we will jointly weather the insults, break strike lines, and ensure our clinical facility is spotless. 2nd body paragraph First, my crew and I will hit the commonly utilized areas Ã¢â¬â the consultation room, the hallways and elevators, the wards, and the kitchen area Ã¢â¬â and then shift to the lesser-utilized areas like the pharmacy and storerooms. Our licensed cleaners and trash haulers will clear out the sewage and move the trash to a landfill in neighboring Mombasa, where it will be properly disposed. 3rd body paragraph Upon the completion of the cleaning process, we will ensure the facility remains spotless during the strike. We will even go further and collect the remnants left by daily protestors. Nobody feels comfortable walking through empty Styrofoam cups and dropped picket signs. Once the hospital strike ends, we will stop our interim services and allow the hospital sanitation to resume its duties. III. Conclusion For this beneficial and timely service, we are only asking for a nominal $3000 fee weekly. This is less compared to what the clinic spends on its sanitation services. In return, my crew and I will provide the tidiest, cleanest facility seen by the city since the strike began. As a regular patient at the clinic for my weekly scheduled dialysis and a local business owner, the cholera outbreak has greatly affected me along with other patients. I would be highly honored to make our main clinical facility clean again.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Evolution of Correctional System - Essay Example In America, the correction system has witnessed great, interesting changes from the medieval times, to the current super-max prisons. With this in mind, this paper will address the evolution of the correction system, including a historical overview of different types of corrections and custody levels. The criminal justice system of America is concerned with both punishment and corrections, however, today; America has the highest inmate population in the world. The history of corrections system in America traces back to the European system, which was in England, Holland, and France. America only improved on this system in the way they executed it. In the past, common law comprising set rules offered guidance and helped people in solving different social problems. The process of law was under the guidance of judges, as they were responsible for making decisions relating to law. However, as time went by, the colonial system developed their system of criminal justice, which laid the foun dation for the present criminal justice system in America (Gottfredson 11-15). In the 16th and 17th Centuries, there were various correction modes. Most of them were based on public shaming, in order to teach offenders a lesson, and deter others. This approach was to prevent the recurrence of criminal activity, and included, cutting off ears, the stocks, whipping, ducking stool, and placing people in the pillory. For much heinous crimes such as murder, the criminals faced execution through public hanging. The act of imprisonment was rare in colonial years. However, this later found its way into the American criminal justice system. In prisons, people waited for their trial or punishment, while in detention. All types of criminals were detained together while waiting punishment. However, these prisons were poorly maintained, due to the negligence of the prison warders. Most people detained in prisons lost their lives due to various diseases, such as the gaol fever. Houses of correcti on were to serve a purpose of instilling industry habits in offenders through labor in prisons. The people held in these houses were mainly petty offenders, the local disorderly poor, and vagrants. Near the end of the 17th Century, houses of correction were absorbed into the prison system, and put under the control of the local justices of peace (Tonry 12-15). In the 18th Century, many executions of criminals were undertaken. This raised concerns and led to the opposition of the death penalty by many people. They suggested that not all offenders found guilty should be subjected to a death penalty, however, only those convicted of serious crimes such as murder, should be executed. This opposition was counter-productive as jurors finally considered executions for petty offenders extreme. They therefore had to look for a much fairer way of punishing petty offenders, other than execution. In the mid-18th Century, imprisonment, with hard labor, was decided on as the most appropriate form of punishment for petty offenders (Freeman 77-80). Transportation was the most appropriate method used to dispose convicts. These were transported by ship to the America and other British colonies by ship. This happened until the America War of Independence. However, at the end of the 18th Century, there was curtailing of transportation. This means that alternative sanctions had to be put in place. These were later